Wines by Country
The United States’ reputation as a wine producer is to a large degree founded on the global fame of Napa and Sonoma. However the country is home to countless wine regions producing world-class wine.
Regional identity is as important to wine in the U.S. as it is in Europe. The concept is embodied by the country’s 200 or so officially demarcated American Viticultural Areas.
Although these are similar to European-style appellations, there are crucial differences: where most European appellations directly govern geographical, viticultural and oenological factors, AVA titles are less restrictive, and indicate only the region of origin (i.e. where the grapes were grown). The AVAs, more than half of which are in California, vary in size from one quarter of a square mile to almost 30,000 square miles (77,700 square kilometers).
California hosts some of the world’s largest wine companies. It is also home to a number of boutique wineries, some of which attract astronomical prices for their cult wines. Whether through mass production or single-vineyard artisanal winemaking, California produces 90 percent of American-made wine. It also supplies more than 60 percent of all wine consumed in the country. A record 211.9 million cases were produced in 2011.
The principal varieties grown in California are Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. A wide range of traditional European (Vitis vinifera) vines also flourish, including Pinot Noir, Merlot and Syrah. Zinfandel can also be included in the list as it is genetically identical to Primitivo in Italy. Among white grape varieties Sauvignon Blanc is a distant second to Chardonnay. These are grafted to hardy American rootstocks which are resistant to phylloxera. Less well known are American/European hybrids producing wines mainly for local consumption.